Sanjida Mahmud Misty
Today is 13 October 2020, “International Disaster Mitigation Day”. Like other countries in Bangladesh this day is celebrated through various events.
This day is being celebrated in our country like every other year. Due to its geographical location Bangladesh is known as a “disaster prone” country. That’s why, the Bangladesh government took the initiative to celebrate this day. The theme for this year is, “Good Governance in Disaster Risk Reduction. Ensuring Sustainable Development”.
Disaster is a natural or man-made catastrophic incident. Most of the disasters occur in the extreme nature. Disasters often change a person’s mental outlook. Disaster is not only a problem of Bangladesh, but also a global problem.
Mitigation means to reduce, to lessen something. Disaster Mitigation means reducing the level of disaster. In fact, disasters cannot be stopped completely, but the level of the impact of disasters can be reduced by cautionary measures. So the word “Mitigation” has been used in conjunction with the word “disaster”.
The word “Disaster” is derived from Middle French “Disastre” and that from old Italian “Disastro” which in turn comes from the ancient Greek.
There are two types of disaster. The first one is natural disaster and the second one is man-made disaster. Natural disasters are any natural phenomena that have an adverse effect on the socio-economic condition of the people. The disaster caused by human unconsciousness is called man-made disaster.
There are lot of reasons behind, which cause disaster. Natural disasters are caused due to different reasons like soil erosion, seismic activity, tectonic movement, air pressure and ocean current etc. Human made disasters are created by the consequence of technical or human haphazard, industrial accidents, nuclear radiation, terrorism by and large. War may also be put in this category.
Cyclone, Sidr, Islas, flood, drought, earthquake, tsunami, fire, deforestation, landslide, river erosion are some of the most well known natural disasters, which often hit Bangladesh.
Bangladesh suffers from floods, cyclones, bank erosion and intrusion of saline water. Cyclones and floods particularly cause massive damage in our country.
In many countries like Bangladesh, monstrous deforestation is going on, which is changing climate and geography. Now it is very clear to all that deforestation has a substantial contribution to global warming.
In the last 20 years, flood has been the most common natural disaster by far, almost 43% of all recorded events. In a joint report with the UN office for disaster risk reduction the centre for research on the epidemiology of disaster recorded 3062 natural flood disaster between 1995 and 2015.
Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, has had 10 earthquakes in the past 365 days. The earthquake occurred in Chittagong on 21 November at 11:23 in the Bangladesh-Indian-Myanmar boarder region is known to be a devastating earthquake in Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Disaster Forum has been working for a long time on disaster management in the coastal area of Bangladesh. Gawhar Naeem, a specialist of this organisation told to BBC Bangla that the people of Bangladesh, “are not afraid of wind, but they are afraid of water”.
It’s very hard to calculate the exact amount of damage caused by the disaster. Besides, those who are lost at sea also leave to be excluded from the government calculation. Therefore, it is not possible for the government to help all the victims.
So, we should be very careful about this matter, so that no one is harmed by it. Only then it is possible to bring sustainable development in our country.
(Writer is first year student of IER in Jagannath University.)